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Journal of Cancer Prevention

Original Article

J Cancer Prev 2022; 27(1): 22-30

Published online March 30, 2022

© Korean Society of Cancer Prevention

Gene Expression Changes by Diallyl Trisulfide Administration in Chemically-induced Mammary Tumors in Rats

Eun-Ryeong Hahm1 , Shivendra V. Singh1,2

1Department of Pharmacology & Chemical Biology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, 2UPMC Hillman Cancer Center, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA, USA

Correspondence to :
Shivendra V. Singh, E-mail:,

Received: December 7, 2021; Revised: January 4, 2022; Accepted: January 6, 2022

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License, which permits unrestricted noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Diallyl trisulfide (DATS) was shown to be a potent inhibitor of luminal-type MCF-7 xenograft growth in vivo. The present study was conducted to determine the preventive effect of DATS administration using an N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU)-induced rat mammary tumor model, which shares molecular resemblance to luminal-type human breast cancers. The DATS administration (50 mg/kg body weight, 5 times/week) was safe, but did not reduce mammary tumor latency, incidence, burden or multiplicity. Therefore, we conducted RNA-seq analysis using mammary tumors from control and DATS-treated rats (n = 3 for each group) to gain insights into lack of mammary tumor prevention by this phytochemical. The gene ontology and the Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes pathway analyses of the RNA-seq data revealed upregulation of genes associated with ribosomes, translation, peptide biosynthetic/metabolic process, and oxidative phosphorylation but downregulation of genes associated with mitogen-activated protein kinases. A total of 33 genes associated with ribosomes were significantly upregulated by DATS treatment, including RPL11 and RPS14. Western blotting confirmed upregulation of RPL11 and neurofascin protein expression in mammary tumors from DATS-treated rats when compared to controls. A statistically significant increase in protein level of c-Jun N-terminal kinase 2 was also observed in tumors from DATS-treated rats when compared to controls. On the other hand, expression of complex I subunits NDUFV1 or NDUFS1 was not affected by DATS treatment. These results offer potential explanations for ineffectiveness of DATS in the chemically-induced rat mammary tumor model. Inhibitors of the proteins upregulated by DATS may be needed to improve chemopreventive efficacy of this phytochemical.

Keywords: Garlic, Diallyl trisulfide, Ribosomal biogenesis, Breast neoplasms, Chemoprevention


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