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Journal of Cancer Prevention

Original Article

J Cancer Prev 2021; 26(2): 110-117

Published online June 30, 2021

© Korean Society of Cancer Prevention

Income and Education Inequalities in Brain and Central Nervous System Cancer Incidence in Canada: Trends over Two Decades

Alysha Roberts1 , Min Hu2 , Mohammad Hajizadeh2

1Faculty of Medicine, Dalhousie University, 2School of Health Administration, Faculty of Health, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, Canada

Correspondence to :
Mohammad Hajizadeh, E-mail:,

Received: March 1, 2021; Revised: May 21, 2021; Accepted: June 9, 2021

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License, which permits unrestricted noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The socioeconomic gradient of brain and central nervous system (CNS) cancer incidence in Canada is poorly understood. This study aimed to measure socioeconomic inequalities in brain and CNS cancer incidence in Canada from 1992 to 2010. Using a unique census division level dataset (n = 280) pooled from the Canadian Cancer Registry (CCR), the Canadian Census of Population and the National Household Survey, we measured brain and CNS cancer incidence in Canada. The age-adjusted concentration index (C) was used to measure income- and education-related inequalities in brain and CNS cancers in Canada, and for men and women, separately. Time trend analyses were conducted to examine the changes in socioeconomic inequalities in brain and CNS cancers in Canada over time. The results indicated that the crude brain and CNS cancer incidence increased from 7.29 to 8.17 per 100,000 (annual percentage change: 0.70) over the study period. The age-adjusted C results suggested that the brain and CNS cancer incidence was not generally significantly different for census division of different income and educational levels. There was insufficient evidence to support changes in income and education-related inequalities over time. Since the incidence of brain and CNS cancers in Canada showed no significant association with socioeconomic status, future cancer control programs should focus on other risk factors for this cancer subset.

Keywords: Social inequalities, Brain neoplasms, Central nervous system neoplasms, Incidence, Canada

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