Journal of Cancer Prevention

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Fig. 4.

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Fig. 4. Black raspberries (BRBs) and 500 ppm protocatechuic acid (PCA) are anti-inflammatory. (A, B) BRBs and 500 ppm PCA decreased COX-2 and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) levels in colonic mucosa (n = 5 mice). (C, D) Five hundred ppm PCA increased IFN-γ and SMAD4 levels in primary cultured human natural killer cells (n = 5 human subjects). *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01.
J Cancer Prev 2022;27:50~57
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