Journal of Cancer Prevention

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Fig. 2. Anticancer activity of thymoquinone (TQ). As a multi-target chemopreventive phytochemical, TQ exerts its anticancer activity through the modulation of expression as well as activation profile of critical signaling molecules involved in cancer cell growth and progression. Signaling molecules upregulated or downregulated by TQ in its anticancer activity is depicted by the upwards ↑ or downwards ↓ arrows. By regulating the overlapping pathways involved in cell proliferation, cell survival, cell death, invasive metastasis, and inflammatory signaling through multiple mechanism including epigenetic regulation, TQ strongly inhibits cancer growth, progression, and metastasis (detailed in the text). JNKs, c-Jun N-terminal kinases; MAPK, modulation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase; eIF4E, eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E; TTP, tristetraprolin; ERK, extracellular signal-regulated kinases; Bcl-2, B-cell lymphoma-2; Bcl-xS, B-cell lymphoma-x-Small; XIAP, X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis; TRAIL, TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand; DR5, death receptor 5; PDE1A, phosphodiesterase 1A; AMPK, AMP-activated kinase; BID, BH3-interacting domain death protein; CXCR4, CXC-motif chemokine receptor-4; JAK2, Janus kinase; CDK, cyclin-dependent kinases; CDC, cell division cycle; E2F-1, Early 2 Family-1; UHRF1, ubiquitin-like-containing PHD and RING finger domains; DNMT1, DNA methyltransferase 1; HDAC1, histone deacetylase 1; EHMT2, euchromatic histone lysine methyltransferase 2; IL, interleukin; iNOS, inducible NOS; IRAK1, interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 1; 5-LOX, 5-lipoxygenase; LTC4S, leukotriene C4 synthase; LTs, leukotrienes; PGs, prostaglandins; TBX, thromboxanes; 5-HETE, 5-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid; PI3K, phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase; VEGFR, VEGF-VEGF-receptor; CXCL, CXC-motif ligand; GSK3β, glycogen synthase kinase 3β; MMP, matrix metalloproteinase.
J Cancer Prev 2020;25:136~151 https://doi.org/10.15430/JCP.2020.25.3.136
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