Journal of Cancer Prevention

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Fig. 1. Redox cycle of thymoquinone (TQ). One electron reduction of TQ by NADPH cytochrome p450 reductases (E1), cytochrome b5 reductase (E2), and NADPH ubiquinone oxidoreductase (E3) generates semiquinone with pro-oxidant activity. In alkaline pH (mostly in vitro) semiquinone is converted further into TQ-dianion with pro-oxidant activity. One-step two electron reduction of TQ by NADPH cytochrome p450 reductases (E1), cytochrome b5 reductase (E2), and NADPH ubiquinone oxidoreductase (E3) generates thymohydroquinone with anti-oxidant activity. TQ can also undergo a non-enzymatic reduction through its interaction with glutathione (GSH) forming glutathionyl-dihydrothymoquinone with ant-oxidant activity.
J Cancer Prev 2020;25:136~151 https://doi.org/10.15430/JCP.2020.25.3.136
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