Journal of Cancer Prevention

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Fig. 5. Mechanism of heavy metal detoxification via phytochelatin (PC) and antioxidants. (A) Schematic diagram of the PC pathway. Ionized forms of heavy metals are in bold circles marked as ‘MET-ion’. PCs molecules are in bold circles marked as ‘PCs’. A double-lined arrow indicates import direction. A bold arrow indicates the PCs synthesis process. Enzymes are written in an italicized bold font. (B) Schematic diagram of heavy metal-induced antioxidant processes. ROS generation by heavy metal exposure activates Nrf2, which is a transcription factor for antioxidant response elements (AREs). Phytochemicals contribute to antioxidative process via stimulation of the Nrf2 pathway. Various antioxidants are activated and remove ROS. GSH, glutathione; ROS, reactive oxygen species; SOD, superoxide dismutase; NQO1, NAD(P)H: quinone acceptor oxidoreductase 1; HO-1, heme oxygenase 1.
Journal of Cancer Prevention 2015;20:232~240
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